History of Computer Evolution
Computer is not the creation of one day, it took many years for the development of modern computers.
1. Abacus is invented by china in 16th century.
- It is the first mechanical calculating device. It used set of beads for representing unit. A horizontal rod represent the one, tens, hundreds, etc
- It is used for addition and subtraction operations.
- Calculation of square roots can also be performed.
2. Napier’s Bones is invented by John Napier in 1617.
- It is in three dimensional structure.
- Holding numbers 0 to 9.
- Represent graphical structure of calculating result.
- Peform multiplication on numbers.
- Technology used for calculation called Rabdologia.
- Operation performed on the embedded rods.
3. Pascaline is invented by Blaise Pascal by 1642.
- It is the first mechanical adding machine.
- It was structured like rectangular box, with eight disc(represent number of units).
- The term carry was introduced in this period.
- It performs addition and subtraction of two numbers.
- Mainly designed with regard to the pressure of liquid.
4. Card of Holes for Weaving Pattern is invented by Joseph Jacquard in 1801.
- It is the first mechanical loom.
- Mainly weaved a silk based pattern.
- Used punched card for the sequence of operation.
- Simplified the process of Textiles.
5. Analytical Engine is invented by Charles Babbage in 1834-71.
- To program the machine, it used two-punchard.
- It is the first general purpose computer.
- Stored program in the form of ‘pegs’ also called barrels.
6. Tabulating Machine is invented by Herman Hollerith in1880.
- It is used punched cards with round holes.
- Read one card at a time.
- It was the first electromechanical machine, which was designed to process the data for census in 1890.
7. MARK-I is invented by Howard Alken in 1944.
- It consists of interlocking panels of small glass, counters, switches and control circuits.
- Data can be enterec manually.
- Mainly used in the war effort during world war-II.
- Magnetic drums are used for storage.
8. ENIAC is invented by JP Eckert and JW Mauchly in 1950.
- It is a combination of twenty accumulators.
- It can also tiggered different operations.
- It is the first electonic digital computer.
- Used for weather prediction, atomic energy calculation and other scientific uses.
9. EDSAC is invented by John Von Neumann in 1946-52.
- It was first computer which provided storage capacity.
- Capable of storing instructions and data in memory.
- Also calculate table of squares and a list of prime numbers.
- First computer program was run on machine.
- Used mercury delay lines for memory and vacuum tubes for logic.
10. UNIVAC is invented by Eckert and JW Mauchly in 1951.
- It is the first general-purpose electronic computer with large amount of input and output.
- Performed both numeric and textual information.
- Used magnetic tapes as input and output.
11. IBM-651 Computer is invented by IBM Company in 1954.
- Provided input/output units converting alphabetical and special characters to two-digit decimal code.
- Payroll processing.
- Oil refinery design.
- Market research analysis.