# History of Computer Evolution

Computer is not the creation of one day, it took many years for the development of modern computers.

**1. Abacus is invented by china in 16th century.**

- It is the first mechanical calculating device. It used set of beads for representing unit. A horizontal rod represent the one, tens, hundreds, etc
- It is used for addition and subtraction operations.
- Calculation of square roots can also be performed.

**2. Napier’s Bones is invented by John Napier in 1617.**

- It is in three dimensional structure.
- Holding numbers 0 to 9.
- Represent graphical structure of calculating result.
- Peform multiplication on numbers.
- Technology used for calculation called Rabdologia.
- Operation performed on the embedded rods.

#### 3. Pascaline is invented by Blaise Pascal by 1642.

- It is the first mechanical adding machine.
- It was structured like rectangular box, with eight disc(represent number of units).
- The term carry was introduced in this period.
- It performs addition and subtraction of two numbers.
- Mainly designed with regard to the pressure of liquid.

##### 4. Card of Holes for Weaving Pattern is invented by Joseph Jacquard in 1801.

- It is the first mechanical loom.
- Mainly weaved a silk based pattern.
- Used punched card for the sequence of operation.
- Simplified the process of Textiles.

###### 5. Analytical Engine is invented by Charles Babbage in 1834-71.

- To program the machine, it used two-punchard.
- It is the first general purpose computer.
- Stored program in the form of ‘pegs’ also called barrels.

**6. Tabulating Machine is invented by Herman Hollerith in1880.**

- It is used punched cards with round holes.
- Read one card at a time.
- It was the first electromechanical machine, which was designed to process the data for census in 1890.

**7. MARK-I is invented by Howard Alken in 1944.**

- It consists of interlocking panels of small glass, counters, switches and control circuits.
- Data can be enterec manually.
- Mainly used in the war effort during world war-II.
- Magnetic drums are used for storage.

**8. ENIAC is invented by JP Eckert and JW Mauchly in 1950.**

- It is a combination of twenty accumulators.
- It can also tiggered different operations.
- It is the first electonic digital computer.
- Used for weather prediction, atomic energy calculation and other scientific uses.

**9. EDSAC is invented by John Von Neumann in 1946-52.**

- It was first computer which provided storage capacity.
- Capable of storing instructions and data in memory.
- Also calculate table of squares and a list of prime numbers.
- First computer program was run on machine.
- Used mercury delay lines for memory and vacuum tubes for logic.

**10. UNIVAC is invented by Eckert and JW Mauchly in 1951.**

- It is the first general-purpose electronic computer with large amount of input and output.
- Performed both numeric and textual information.
- Used magnetic tapes as input and output.

**11. IBM-651 Computer is invented by IBM Company in 1954.**

- Provided input/output units converting alphabetical and special characters to two-digit decimal code.
- Payroll processing.
- Oil refinery design.
- Market research analysis.