Glossary of HR Terms starting with Alphabet I
Ice breaker: A beginning exercise, game or simulation used as a means to reduce tension and create a more relaxed atmosphere during training programs.
Illegal issues: Collective bargaining issues that would require either party to take illegal action.
Illegal subjects: Those collective bargaining items that are unlawful by statute.
Illusion of control: People’s belief that they can influence events, even they have no control over what will happen.
Image consulting: The practice of counseling and advising individuals regarding items such as personal appearance, dress, manner of speaking or style.
Immediate confirmation: The concept that people learn best if reinforcement is given soon as possible after training.
Impairment: A physical or mental condition resulting from injury or illness, which diminishes an individual’s faculties such as ability to hear, see, walk, talk, etc.
Implied contract: A common-law tort existing when an agreement is implied from circumstances, even though there has been no express agreement between the employer and the employee.
Importing and exporting: The phase of international interaction in which an organization begins selling and buying goods and services with organizations in other countries.
Improshare plan: Industrial engineering-based gain sharing plan that uses past production records to establish base performance standards.
Imputed income: Premium amount that a company pays on behalf of an employee; the employee does not receive the benefits in dollars but does pay taxes on it.
Incentive pay: Additional compensation used to motivate and reward employees for exceeding performance or productivity goals.
Incidence rate statistics: Indicates the work-related injuries and illnesses and the number of lost workdays per-100 employees.
In-company/in-house counseling: An employee assistance program(EAP) which is conducted by a trained professional counselor hired as an employee by the employer to handle all aspects of the company’s EAP.
Independent contractors: A self-employed individual who performs specific services on a contract basis.
Indirect compensation: Compensation that is not paid directly to an employee and is calculated in addition to base salary and incentive pay (i.e.,health/dental/vision insurance, vacation, retirement benefits, educational benefits, relocation expenses, etc.).
Indirect costs: Expenses, such as fringe benefits, overhead, utilities, rent or equipment, that have incurred for the purpose of common general activities and cannot be identified or charged directly to the production of a specific project.
Indirect labor: Used to define labor that is necessary to support the manufacturing of a product, but is not directly involved with the actual process of manufacturing the product.
Individual-centered career planning: Career planning that focuses on individual’s careers rather than on organizational needs.
Individual retirement account: A special account in which an employee can set aside funds that will not be taxed until the employee retires.
Individualism: Dimension of culture that refers to the extent to which people in a country prefer to act as individuals instead of members of groups.
Induction program: Programs designed to introduce and acclimate newly hired employees into the organization.
Industrial democracy: The involvement and empowerment of employees in decision-making within the organization by such methods as joint labor management committees, work teams, quality circles, employee task forces.
Industrial psychology: Applied psychology concerned with the study of human behavior in the workplace and how to efficiently manage an industrial labor force and problems encountered by employees.
Industrial rehabilitation: Programs designed to get employees who have, been injured on the job back into the workforce and off worker’s compensation.
Industrial union: A union that includes many persons working in the same industry or company, regardless of jobs held.
Informal training: Training that occurs internally through interactions and feedback among employees.
Informed consent: An individual’s agreement to allow something to transpire subsequent to the individual having been informed of associated risks involved and alternatives.
Injunctive relief: A court order requiring a person to perform, or to refrain from performing, a designated act.
In placement counseling: A form of employee counseling geared toward acclimating recently promoted or transferred employees into their new positions or providing current employees guidance on the steps they need to take to be considered for promotion or transfer to alternative positions.
In sourcing: Refers to the process of internally administering employee benefit plans or other programs,as opposed to utilizing the services of a third-party provider.
Intangible rewards: Non-monetary reinforcing, such as praise, given to an employee in recognition of a job well done or a particular achievement.
Integrative bargaining: Takes place when there is more than one issue to be resolved; focuses on creative solutions to conflicts that reconcile the parties interests and results in mutual benefit.
Integrity testing: A pre-employment psychological assessment tool used to gauge an applicant’s honesty.
Intellectual property: Property which is protected under federal law, including trade secrets, confidential or proprietary information, copyright or creative works, ideas, patents or inventions.
Intelligence quotient(IQ): The measure of an individual’s cognitive abilities, as measured by an intelligence test.
Interfaces: Areas of contract between the HR unit and managers within the organization.
Internal audit: The process of conducting an in-house examination of one or more of an organization’s processes, functions, programs, etc.
Internal equity: Occurs when people feel that performance or job difference result in corresponding differences in pay rates.
Internal recruitment: The practice of assessing the employer’s current workforce to determine whether or not current employees posses the required skills or qualifications to fill specific vacancies either through promotion or transfer.
Internal temporary pool employee: A pool of former employees who are called upon and hired to fill temporary needs on an as-needed basis.
International assignees: Persons who live in one country and are employed by an organization based in another country, also called expatriates.
Internship: A partnership between an organization and an educational institution whereby students are hired by an employer for a specified period of time into a professional or technical position that correlates with their area of study in order to provide them with hands-on experience and prepare them for the workforce.
Interpersonal communications: Refers to the process of communicating with another person or group to express feelings, thoughts or information by means of physical gestures or verbal exchanges.
Interpretive guidelines on sexual harassment: EEO issued guidelines defining sexual harassment and the employer’s responsibility for maintaining a workplace environment which is free from sexual harassment or intimidation.
Interview: Used during the selection process, an interview is a face-to-face meeting with an individual or group, which involves asking questions to elicit information from the applicant to determine whether or not an applicant is suitable for a position of employment.
Intranet: An organizational network that operates over the Internet.
Intrapreneurship: The act of creating new products and processes with an organization. The intrapreneur is a corporate entrepreneur.
Intrinsic reward: A reward given to an employee for achievement of a particular goal, objective or project.
Involuntary deductions: Payroll deductions such as tax levies and court ordered child support that an employee must pay; withheld from paychecks before voluntary deductions.
Involuntary termination: When employers decide to discharge particular employees for cause (e.g., poor performance, inability to manage subordinates, inability to work with management, and violations of employer policy).
ISO 9000: Developed by the International Organization for Standardization(ISO), it is a set of standards for quality management systems that is accepted around the world. Organizations that conform to these standards can receive ISO 9000 certification. The standard intended for quality management system assessment and registration is ISO 9001. The standards apply uniformly to organizations of any size or description.