Glossary of HR Terms starting with Alphabet C
Career: The sequence of work-related positions a person occupies throughout life.
Career-average formula: Type of formula used to determine benefits under a defined benefit pension plan, based on a percentage of pay for each year the employee is in the plan or a percentage of career-average pay times years of service.
Career center: An office set up within an organization to be used for the purpose of providing outplacement counseling and job placement services to displaced workers.
Career counseling: Guiding individuals through the career planning and career decision-making process by helping them to make informed decisions regarding educational and occupational choices, as well as providing resources needed to further developing job search and placement skills.
Career development: The process by which individuals establish their current and future career objectives and assess their existing skills, knowledge or experience levels and implement an appropriate course or action to attain their desired career objectives.
Career ladder: The progression of jobs in an organization’s specific occupational fields ranked from highest to lowest based on level of responsibility and pay.
Career mobility: The propensity to make several career changes during an individual’s lifetime instead of committing to a long-term career within a specific occupational field.
Career path: The progression of jobs in an organization’s specific occupational fields ranked from lowest to highest in the hierarchal structure.
Career planning: The process of establishing career objectives and determining appropriate educational and developmental programs to further develop the skills required to achieve short-or long-term career objectives.
Career plateau: Occurs when an employee has reached the highest position level he or she can possibly obtain within an organization and has no future prospect of being promoted due to a lack of skills, corporate restructuring or other factors.
Cash profit- sharing plans: Provide employees with payments, based on the organization’s profitability, that ate additional to the employee’s normal rates of pay and taxed accordingly.
Casual dress: Refers to attire such as jeans, casual slacks, t-shirts, sport and polo shirts and other apparel used for leisure.
Casual employment: The practice of hiring employees on an as-needed basis, either as a replacement for permanent full-time employees who are out on short and long-term absences or to meet employer’s additional staffing needs during peak business periods.
Caucus: A labor relations term used to define periodic suspensions of negotiations in order to provide both sides with an opportunity to consider their relevant positions.
Centralization: The process of consolidating all decision-making authority under one central group or location.
Change management: The systematic approach and application of knowledge, tools and resources to deal with change. Change management means defining and adopting corporate strategies, structures, procedures and technologies to deal with changes in external conditions and the business environment.
Central tendency error: Rating all employees in a narrow band in the middle of the rating scale.
Checklist: Performance appraisal tool that uses a list of statements of words that are checked be raters.
Climate survey: Organizational feedback and communication mechanism that asks employees to provide opinions on given topics, feelings and beliefs about their jobs or the organization; also known as attitude survey.
Closed shop: A firm that requires individuals to join a union before they can be hired.
Closed questions: Questions that can usually be answered with yes or no.
Coaching: Daily training and feedback given to employees by immediate supervisors.
Co-employment: The relationship between a Professional Employer Organization or employee leasing firm and an employer, based on a contractual sharing of liability and responsibility for employees.
Cognitive ability testing: A testing instrument used during the selection process in order to measure the candidate’s learning and reasoning abilities.
COBRA(Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act): Act that provides for continuation of group health-care benefits for former employees and their families.
Co-determination: A practice whereby union or worker representatives are given positions on a company’s board of directors.
Collective bargaining: The process whereby representatives of management and workers negotiate over wages, hours, and other terms and conditions of employment.
Commission: Payment paid to salespeople, usually calculated as a percentage of sales.
Compa-ratio: Pay level divided by the midpoint of the pay range.
Comparative rating: A rating method that determines ratings by making comparisons between the individual being rated.
Compensable factor: That used to identify a job value that is commonly present throughout a group of jobs.
Compensation committee: Usually a subgroup of the board of directors composed of directors who are not officers of the firm.
Compensatory time off: That given in lieu of payment for extra time worked.
Competencies: The knowledge , skills and abilities required to perform a specific task or function.
Complaint: An indication of employee dissatisfaction that has not been submitted in writing.
Compressed workweek: Workweek in which a full week’s work is accomplished in fewer than five days.
Computer based training: Training an employee completes from his/her computer workstation. The training is accessible via the Internet or CD’s.
Conciliation: Process by which a third party attempts a keep union and management negotiators talking so that they can reach a voluntary settlement.
Concurrent validity: Validity showing a relationship between an abstract characteristic and job performance.
Constructive discharge: Occurs when an employer deliberately makes conditions intolerable in an attempt to get an employee to quit.
Consultant: An individual who works independently to assist and advise client organizations with various organizational functions and responsibilities on a fee-for-service basis.
Content validity: The degree to which an interview, test, or other selection device measures the knowledge, skills, abilities, or other qualifications that are part of the job.
Contingent worker: Refers to an individual employed in a job that does not have an explicit contract for long-term employment (i.e; independent contractor or temporary employee).
Contractual rights: Rights based on a specific contractual agreement between employer and employee.
Contrast error: Tendency to rate people relative to other people rather than to performance standards.
Contributory plan: Pension plan in which the money for pension benefits is paid in by both employees and employers.
Co-payment: Employee’s payment of a portion of the cost of both insurance premiums and medical care.
Core competencies: The skills, knowledge and abilities which employees must possess in order to successfully perform job functions that are essential to business operations.
Core work activities: The tasks or functions within an organization considered essential to the organization’s business operations.
Core workers: Employees who are considered to be vital to the organization ‘s successful business operations.
Corporate culture: The beliefs, values and practices adopted by an organization that directly influence employee conduct and behavior.
Corporate image: The way in which an organization is viewed by clients, employees, vendors or the general public.
Corporate values: The prescribed standards, behaviors, principles or concepts that an organization regards as highly important.
Correlation coefficient: An index number giving the relationship between a predictor and a criterion variable.
Cost-benefit analysis: Compares costs of training with the benefits received.
COLA(Cost-of-living adjustment): Pay adjustment given to employees regardless of their performance or company profitability; usually linked to inflation; also referred to as a standard percent raise.
Counseling: A form of intervention in which the emphasis is on the cause of a problem rather than on job performance.
Craft union: A union whose members do one type of work, often using specialized skills and training.
Criterion-related validity: Validity measured by means of a procedure that uses a test as the predictor of how well an individual will perform on the job.
Critical success factor: The key items that must be met in order to successfully achieve a specific objective.
Critical tasks: The job tasks or functions essential to the proper performance of a particular job.
Cross training: The process of developing a multi skilled workforce by providing employees with training and development opportunities to ensure they have the skills necessary to perform various job functions within an organization.
Cultural differences: The diverse behaviors, beliefs, customs, traditions, language and expressions that are characteristic to groups of people of a particular race, ethnicity or national origin.
Cultural integration: The process of bringing people of different racial or ethnic backgrounds into equal association.
Cultural noise: Type of interviewer bias; failure to recognize responses of a candidate that are socially acceptable rather than factual.
Culture: The societal forces affecting the values, beliefs, and actions of a distinct group of people.
Curriculum vitae(C.V): Used in the United States to describe, a longer, more detailed version of resume. Internationally is synonymous with resume.
Cumulative trauma disorders: Muscle and skeletal injuries that occur when workers repetitively use the same muscles to perform tasks.
Cyber smear: Using Web sites, listservs, chat rooms or bulletin boards to post insulting or defamatory statements regarding former employers.