# History of Computer Evolution

Computer is not the creation of one day, it took many years for the development of modern computers.

## 1. Abacus is invented by china in 16th century.

• It is the first mechanical calculating device. It used set of beads for representing unit. A horizontal rod represent the one, tens, hundreds, etc
• It is used for addition and subtraction operations.
• Calculation of square roots can also be performed.

### 2. Napier’s Bones is invented by John Napier in 1617.

• It is in three dimensional structure.
• Holding numbers 0 to 9.
• Represent graphical structure of calculating result.
• Peform multiplication on numbers.
• Technology used for calculation called Rabdologia.
• Operation performed on the embedded rods.

#### 3. Pascaline is invented by Blaise Pascal by 1642.

• It is the first mechanical adding machine.
• It was structured like rectangular box, with eight disc(represent number of units).
• The term carry was introduced in this period.
• It performs addition  and subtraction of two numbers.
• Mainly designed with regard to the pressure of liquid.
##### 4. Card of Holes for Weaving Pattern is invented by Joseph Jacquard in 1801.
• It is the first mechanical loom.
• Mainly weaved a silk based pattern.
• Used punched card for the sequence of operation.
• Simplified the process of Textiles.
###### 5. Analytical Engine is invented by Charles Babbage in 1834-71.
• To program the machine, it used two-punchard.
• It is the first general purpose computer.
• Stored program in the form of ‘pegs’ also called barrels.

6. Tabulating Machine is invented by Herman Hollerith     in1880.

• It is used punched cards with round holes.
• Read one card at a time.
• It was the first electromechanical machine, which was designed to process the data for census in 1890.

7. MARK-I is invented by Howard Alken in 1944.

• It consists of interlocking panels of small glass, counters, switches and control circuits.
• Data can be enterec manually.
• Mainly used in the war effort during world war-II.
• Magnetic drums are used for storage.

8. ENIAC is invented by JP Eckert and JW Mauchly in 1950.

• It is a combination of twenty accumulators.
• It can also tiggered different operations.
• It is the first electonic digital computer.
• Used for weather prediction, atomic energy calculation and other scientific uses.

9. EDSAC is invented by John Von Neumann in 1946-52.

• It was first computer which provided storage capacity.
• Capable of storing instructions and data in memory.
• Also calculate table of squares and a list of prime numbers.
• First computer program was run on machine.
• Used mercury delay lines for memory and vacuum tubes for logic.

10. UNIVAC is invented by Eckert and JW Mauchly in 1951.

• It is the first general-purpose electronic computer with large amount of input and output.
• Performed both numeric and textual information.
• Used magnetic tapes as input and output.

11. IBM-651 Computer is invented by IBM Company in 1954.

• Provided input/output units converting alphabetical and special characters to two-digit decimal code.
• Payroll processing.
• Oil refinery design.
• Market research analysis.